Great tit

    Great tit

    Parus major

Castilian: Carbonero común

Catalan: Mallerenga carbonera

Gallego: Ferreiriño real

Euskera: Kaskabeltz handia


Orden: Passeriformes

Family: Paridae

Migratory status: Permanent resident


On the National List of Threatened Species, it appears in the “Of Special Interest” category. In the 2004 edition of the Red Book of Spanish Birds (Libro Rojo de las Aves de España) it is listed as “Not Evaluated”.

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Without obvious threats, although the use of artificial nests which are incorrectly placed and checked increases the chances of losing eggs or chicks to depredation by woodpeckers and weasels. Climate change causes variations in the hatching of caterpillars, which harms this species, especially during mating season.

Length / size: 14 cm / 22,5-25,5 cm

Identification: It is the largest of the tits. Its breast is yellow and contrasts with its bluish tail and wings; it has a black central band on its belly that is large and dark in males and softer and narrower in females. Its head is black with white cheeks, and its bill and legs are dark.

Song: Its most common and repeated call is "tee-tee-tah-tee-tee-tah". It is very variable depending on the region.

Diet: Primarily insectivorous food sources: beetles and hymenopterans. In spring it complements its diet with lepidopteran larvae and in autumn with blackberry and elder fruits.

Reproduction: Breeding season begins in March. The nest is built by the female in hollow trees and is made of thin roots, down, grass and lichens. She is also responsible for incubating the eggs.


It is a forest-dwelling bird that is not very demanding and can be found in any area with scattered trees. It appears in oak groves, Portuguese oak groves, beech groves, savin groves, orchards, parks, etc.


In Spain: It covers the entire territory. It is only absent in treeless areas and in the Canary Island archipelago.

In Castile and León: Very widespread throughout beech, pine and oak groves. Significant populations are found in the forests of Zamora and Salamanca.

Movements and migrations: It is a sedentary species in the Iberian Peninsula. In winter the number of European specimens increases.


In Spain: There is an estimated population of more than 4 million breeding pairs.

In Castile and León: